Features of the functional state of the cardiovascular system during cognitive load for children 5-6 years of age

Main Article Content

I. O. Kalуnychenko
A. S. Kolesnyk


Introduction.Much attention is paid to the analysis of problems that arise during the initial stage of children's education in school in recent years. Preschool age is one of the sensitive and critical stages of individual development. Explicit structural and functional changes occur during this period. These changes are accompanied by an increase in the functional stress of psychovegetative mechanisms of regulation. Both psychological and physical stress are considered to be the cause of autonomic disorders. Such a provoking factor may be the beginning of school for a child. Formation of visual and auditory perception is one of the leading functions of cognitive development for older preschool children. This function provides the child's interaction with the external environment and its orientation in space. This function is also an indicator of the child's readiness for school.

Therefore, the importance of studying the features of the functional state of the cardiovascular system during the audio-visual load of educational and developmental nature is relevant.

The purpose was to study the features of autonomic regulation of heart rhythm of children 5-6 years old under conditions of cognitive load.

Methods. Observation was carried out on children 5-6 years of age of preparatory groups of preschool educational institutions of the Sumy city (n = 192). We assume that changes in autonomic functions may be influenced by the immaturity of motor-motor, visual-auditory, speech-auditory and visual-graphic components. An important component of educational and cognitive activities in preschool age is the development of reading and writing. Visual information was studied from two positions – pictorial (elements of writing) and verbal (recognition of letters and words – elements of reading).  

The method of phasography was used to study the state of the cardiovascular system. This method was used using the device "Phazagraph". This device is designed for recording and analysis of the electrocardiogram in the phase space to estimate the amplitude and speed parameters of any elements of the electrocardiogram, which allows you to accurately estimate the graph of the electrocardiogram.

Results. It was found that sympathicotonia is manifested among the examined children aged 5 and 6 years during cognitive load. Activation of the sympathetic part of the autonomic nervous system occurs during writing compared to reading. That is, the adaptive mechanisms of the autonomic nervous system correspond to lower rates during writing compared to reading.  The reason for this may be the immaturity of autonomous supply systems and mechanisms for their regulation and indicate an imbalance of autonomic supply. In turn, the dominance of sympathetic influence on heart rate is accompanied by signs of dysregulation of cardiovascular functions during writing for children. The reason may be the immaturity of the functional systems of the interconnected brain areas, which is accompanied by a deterioration in the coordination of autonomic functions of the body.

Originality. The idea of the formation of psychophysiological features in ontogenesis is expanded.

Conclusion. A comprehensive assessment of children's adaptation to exercise was justified.

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