Ornithofauna of solid waste landfills of the Kharkov city

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Y. Y. Dementieieva


Introduction. As a result of consumer activity, household waste is generated, which is stored in specially designated landfills. Such areas are factors of multifunctional impact on the environment and are characterized by the release of filtrate and gases, various types of air pollution, soils and groundwater, the transformation of natural landscapes. The biotic component of ecosystems responds most dynamically to changes in landscape conditions, which appear in the transformation of vegetation and the formation of specific fauna. The fauna of such areas is most characterized by avifauna. Birds are attracted mainly by food resources, as well as conditions for rest, wintering, nesting away from humans.

Purpose. Тo identify the species composition and ecological features of the formation of avifauna of the territory of Dergachiv and Rohan landfills in Kharkiv.

Methods. To obtain general idea of the avifauna of landfills, route and point accounting methods were used, using optical equipment (binoculars, camera) and the field determinant "Birds of the Fauna of Ukraine" (Fesenko, Bokotei, 2002). The similarity coefficient is determined by the Jakarra formula.

Results. The species composition of the avifauna is represented by a total of 66 species, from 25 families and 11 series. The dominant genus - Passeriformes (Passeriformes), the largest number of members of the family is Crows (Corvidae). The areas of landfills are divided into functional areas for human use to provide the most correct description of the structure of birds in relation to landfill areas - the dominant species are concentrated in the area of active waste unloading, others are usually found around the landfill and on the reclaimed landfill. The similarity of the species composition of the avifauna of two landfills was determined - the similarity coefficient is equal to 0.12, which indicates a small similarity, but noticeable one. The species composition is divided according to trophic preferences according to the classification of Kostin S. Yu. And it is determined that the largest share among the avifauna of landfills is occupied by entomophagous (33.3%) and polyphagous (27.8%). It should be noted that the dominant species by the number of representatives on the landfill are fully polyphagous.

Originality. In Kharkiv region, the study of the composition and ecological features of the avifauna of landfills is conducted for the first time.

Conclusion. Thus, the species composition of the avifauna of landfills is quite diverse and is formed mainly in two regular directions - the adaptation of species to changes in environmental conditions and the concentration of species that are attracted by the available forage base and conditions for wintering. Differences arise in response to geographical location, landscape conditions, proximity to water, settlements, and so on.

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