Adaptation of human organism to hypoxia

V. V. Sosnowskiy, V. A. Pastukhova

Abstract


Introduction. Adaptation to hypoxia uses extensive flexible potential of organism, which is based on structural changes in cells and tissues and can both increase the oxygen supply, and reduce the critical level of partial oxygen pressure.

Purpose. Analyze and generalize information contained in the literature on the effects of hypoxia on the human body.

Methods. Analysis of special scientific literature, which considers the physiological mechanisms of human adaptation to hypoxia.

Results. Individual adaptation to hypoxia manifests itself in two main forms - immediate and long term. Immediate adaptation develops in case of acute hypoxia when ready available functional body mechanisms, increasing the delivery of oxygen to tissues, are used. Long-term adaptation mechanisms which are usually formed in case of repetitive or chronic hypoxia of moderate intensity, are a basis for increasing body resistance to the action of hypoxic factor. Long-term adaptation to hypoxia uses extensive flexible potential of organism, which is based on structural changes in cells and tissues and can both increase the oxygen supply, and reduce the critical level of partial oxygen pressure.

Originality. It is shown that the human body adaptation to hypoxia action may be realized by means of passive adaptation, which may be manifested by development of hypometabolic state.

Conclusion. When hypoxia occurs, body reacts by launching the evolutionarily formed complex of protective and adaptive reactions, which help to adapt to this influence. Adaptation to hypoxia is provided by anatomic and biochemical characteristics of the individuals’ organisms living or staying temporarily in conditions of insufficient oxygen. 


Keywords


hypoxia; active adaptation; passive adaptation; energy homeostasis; hypometabolic state

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