Indicators of the first graders’ physical development in terms of the traditional and new Ukrainian school
Introduction. The modern way of life and the mode of education affects the health of a primary school pupil. Especially relevant is the study of physical health and adaptive capacity of modern schoolchildren, in terms of the new Ukrainian school.
Purpose. to assess the physical development of first-graders who studied in the traditional education system and the new Ukrainian school.
Methods. 120 schoolchildren aged 6-7 participated in our research. They were divided into two groups (60 people each): I - pupils of the traditional education system (TES), II – pupils of the new Ukrainian school (NUS). Within the groups, subgroups by gender (30 people each) were distinguished.
To identify trends in the physical development of first-graders the conventional method of anthropometry was used, taking into account height (H, cm), body weight (BW, kg), vital capacity (VC, l), muscle strength of the leading arm (dynamometry, kg), blood pressure (ATsyst., ATdiast., mm Hg), heart rate (heart rate, beats / min.).
According to the established anthropometric indicators, the indices of physical health were determined: body mass index (BMI, kg / m2), vital index (LI, ml / kg), strength index (SI,%), Rohrer index (IR, kg / m2), level of physical condition (LPC, c. unit) and adaptive capabilities according to the index of functional changes (IFC, c.unit).
During the obtained data processing, the methods of variation statistics with the estimation of Student's t-test were used.
Results. Boys were characterized by a higher proportion of people with low growth rates, girls - the opposite trend. Among NUS children, a higher proportion of people with excess BW growth rates, regardless of gender, was found. The tendency to increased heart rate was recorded among NUS children, who had a higher proportion of people with VL below normal. The highest percentage of children in terms of dynamometry that meet the age norms was recorded among TES girls. Significant differences between the groups of subjects were found in terms of VL and the strength of the muscles of the hand (with the predominance of TES students). NUS children were characterized by higher BMI. According to the indicators of LI and SI, the advantage of TES children was revealed, for whom the average indicated indicator corresponded to the average level (in the opposite group - low). In general, NUS children were characterized by significantly higher indicators of physical condition. According to the IFC, TES boys were more characterized by an unsatisfactory level of adaptation, while among girls the share with unsatisfactory level of adaptation is higher in terms of NUS training.
Originality. An assessment of the physical development of first-graders in terms of traditional and the new Ukrainian school. It was established that the children of the new Ukrainian school were characterized by significantly higher indicators of the functional state level, which indicates the best state of blood circulation in terms of adaptation to learning. In terms of adaptability, boys in the traditional education system were more characterized by an unsatisfactory level of adaptation, while among girls the share with an unsatisfactory level of adaptation is higher in the new Ukrainian school.
Conclusions. Children of the new Ukrainian school were characterized by significantly higher indicators of the physical condition level, which indicates an improved state of blood circulation in this group. Among first-graders of the traditional school, the share of people with a high level of physical condition was lower (33.4%), compared with the opposite group (50%). Adaptive abilities among boys corresponded to the stress of adaptation, in girls - unsatisfactory adaptation, regardless of learning conditions. Children of the new Ukrainian school were characterized by an increase in the share of people with satisfactory adaptation (boys - up to 16.7%, girls - up to 26.7%).
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