Agroecological conditions of formation of yield and seed quality millet

S. P. Poltoretskyi, V. Y. Bilonozhko, N. M. Poltoretska

Abstract


Introduction. One of the most important tasks of Ukraine's agricultural sector is to increase grain production. Moreover, the need to increase not only the level of productivity but also to improve its quality. The solution to this problem is possible by improving the state-level system of seed production, permanent and update grade, grade replacement and improvement of existing and the introduction of new high-quality technology.

Purpose. The aim – to theoretically justify and determine the optimum agroecological conditions of growing millet, ensuring maximum yield of high-quality seeds.

Methods. During the execution of the studies used General scientific methods, in particular, the following: hypothesis, observation, analysis, synthesis, induction and deduction, abstraction and generalization. The material was own observations and the literature in the chosen area of research.

Results. The technology of growing seed crops and product has a number of differences. Many scientists study the features on the formation of sowing qualities and fruitful properties of seeds indicates that high yield is no guarantee of obtaining high sowing qualities. In addition, the literature data on the conditions of formation maximum yield seed quality decreases. Thus, the largest seed yield and its biological full value is achieved at the level of yields of 4.0-4.5 t/ha. A further increase productivity and reduce it beyond 3 t/ha does not allow receiving high-quality seeds. In the technology of growing plants in seed crops significant role of culture knowledge of biology, critical periods of development, the characteristics of response to abiotic, biotic and anthropogenic factors in the formation and development of seeds, it causes different quality. Relationship plant organism with the environment starts from the time of its formation. Regarding ontogenesis seed – this embryonic stage of plant development. Formed in the mother's body, the seed is affected by all the conditions of existence of this plant. Factors that contribute to the successful growth and development of plants generally contribute to the formation of high-quality seeds, and, conversely, those that inhibit the plants degrade the quality of the seed. The growth and development of plants is by combining different environmental conditions. In addition, the seed that develops in the mother plant is in close relationship with leaves that supply the products of photosynthesis and root system, which provides it with water and nutrients. The level of provision of such plants depends on the action of environmental conditions, some of which improve and others impair optimal revenues ripening seeds metabolites.

Conclusion. Even under the same conditions for seed nutrients, it still affects a number of factors: the length of daylight varies the quality and intensity of the light, different temperatures and so on. This applies particularly to crops with a long flowering period; resulting in a seed that is formed on the plant can get to various changing conditions of the external environment. The result of the impact environmental factors have shaped seeds that even within a single inflorescence can have different morphological and physiological indicators.


Keywords


millet; seed; crop quality; productive properties; agroecological growing conditions

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