Assessment of management approaches to agroecosystems and phytosanitary condition of crops in order to preserve biodiversity in agricultural landscapes

V. Y. Bilonozhko, S. I. Deriy, S. P. Poltoretskyi, N. M. Poltoretska

Abstract


Composition and ratio of living organisms in the agrocenosis in a major way are determined by the environment. Conducted studies contribute to a clear definition of human capabilities in managing biodiversity. The article highlights the main principles underlying the management of ecosystems and phytosanitary condition of crops in order to preserve biodiversity in agricultural landscapes. We understand the management of field agroecosystem as the implementation of a system of appropriate agricultural activities. Organization of micro reserves with sowing nectariferous plants is a highly effective measure in support of biodiversity in agricultural landscapes. The main external control acts of agrocenoses are those agronomic activities (such as plant density) which are aimed at creating a certain structure of the crop harvest. A significant influence on this process is carried out by phytophages. The most adapted to the nature of biogeocoenose is crop rotation as a macro factor because it maintains the continuity of ecosystem processes in the agrobiogeocoenose of some fields terminating in agrocenoses annually. In the future - agro-ecosystems should be perfectly linked with natural ecosystems, to build them on the principles of ecosystem development of wildlife based on environmental measures. This will be facilitated by factors such as increasing the diversity of crops in rotations, reducing the number of pesticide treatments with broad-spectrum, techniques of minimum tillage, growing of mixed crops, spreading of organic (biological, alternative) farming. The problem of the transition to adaptive or symbiotic system of farming, scientifically proven field crop cultivation by the environmental intensification of processes is determined. In addition, it is necessary to create heterogeneous by genetic properties, allelopathic compatible non single-component crops. Continuous spreading of fertilizers should be replaced by local applying (directly under crops). Continuous chemically protective processing of fields should be changed by the selective method of spraying crops with pesticides that simultaneously with the removal of the threat from pests there was the change of trophic structure in the agrocenosis towards increasing pressure of predatory arthropods on pests. Creating management programs of phytosanitary condition of agrobiogeocoenoses is unthinkable without mathematical methods. The task of management of phytosanitary condition in the fields of crops is far from being resolved but scientifically justified use of fertilizers and pesticides in conditions of permanent agrobiocenosis diagnosis of crops will avoid ecological catastrophe. Today it is possible to intensify field crop cultivation without negative consequences for the development of agrobiogeocoenoses. At the same time measures for preserving and greening agriculture in general remain quite relevant.

Keywords


biodiversity; conditions of the environment; agro-ecosystem management; agronomic measures; adaptive crop production; multispecies sowings; mathematical modeling; integrated plant protection; noosphere

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