The Influence of Respiration upon the Oscillation Duration of R-R Interval and Cardiac Output

V. A. Zavhorodnia, S. O. Kovalenko, A. V. Rybalko, S. I. Tokar


Introduction.  Assessing the impact of external respiration upon haemodynamics help, firstly, to estimate the functional state of cardio-vascular system and, secondly, to find the most efficient control regimes of this state using the regulation of respiration movements. 

Purpose. To analyze scientific literature concerning the influence of external respiration upon wave processes in haemodynamics.

Methods. The analysis of scientific literature.

Results. The investigation of changes in heart rhythm variability and blood stroke volume at verbalization, regulated breathing, and resistance to respiration movements is analyzed. The signs and mechanisms of respiratory sinus arrhythmia are characterized. The changes in the wave structure of haemodynamic indicators in persons with different respiration typology are described.

Originality. It is found that there are no uniform value standards of hemodynamic changes under the influence of respiratory movements. There are few publications considering the oscillation of blood stroke volume in healthy people and cross-spectral analysis of this indicator with the changes of R-R interval duration.  Some aspects of respiration sinus arrhythmia, particularly, with regulated respiration have not been studied yet.

Conclusion. The literature analysis shows the necessity of further investigation of both methodical and theoretical aspects of respiration influence upon the wave indicators of haemodynamics..


heart rhythm variability; external respiration


Gonschorek A.S. et al (2001). Influence of respiratory motor neurone activity on human autonomic and haemodynamic rhythms. Clin Physiol. 21, 3, 323-34.

Glebovskiy V.D. (1973). Reflexes from the receptors of easy and respiratory muscles and their value in adjusting of breathing. In: Handbook of physiology. Respiration Physiology. L.:Nauka.115-50. (in Russ.)

Dvoretskiy D.P., Tkachenko B.I. (1987). Lung haemodymamics. M.: Meditsina. 288 p.(in Russ.)

Tkachenko B.I., Evlahov V.I., Poyasov I.Z. (2001). About the role of negative pressure in the chest in the change of vein return of blood to the heart.  Ros. fiziol. zhurn. im.I.M.Sechenova. 87, 1.14-22.(in Russ.)

Morman D., Heller L. (2000). Physiology of cardiovascular system. SPB: Piter. 250 p. (in Russ.)

Patwardhan A. et al (2001). Heart rate variability during sympatho-excitatory challenges: comparison between spontaneous and metronomic breathing. Integr Physiol Behav Sci. 36, 2.109-20.

Reilly K.J., Moore C.A. (2003). Respiratory sinus arrhythmia during speech production. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 46,1. 164-77.

Vovk O.N. et al (2005). Respirator sine arrhythmia as objective quantitative criterion for the study of parameters and optimization of the vocal breathing and speech. In: IV Vseros. konf. «Mehanizmyi funktsionirovaniya vistseralnyih sistem». SPb. 57-8. (in Russ.)

Bernardi L. et al (2000). Effects of controlled breathing, mental activity and mental stress with or without verbalization on heart rate variability. J Am Coll Cardiol. 35, 6. 1462-9.

Cysarz D. et al (2004). Oscillations of heart rate and respiration synchronize during poetry recitation.  Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 287, 2. 579-87.

Penttila J. et al (2001). Time domain, geometrical and freguency domain analysis of cardiac vagal outflow: effects of various respiratory patterns. Clin Physiol. 21, 3. 365-76.

Stark R. et al (2000). Effects of paced respiration on heart period and heart period variability. Psychophysiol. 37, 3. 302-9.

Williams C.A., Lopes P. (2002). The influence of ventilatory control on heart rate variability in children. J Sports Sci. 20, 5. 407-15.

Badra L.J. et al (2001). Respiratory modulation of human autonomic rhythms. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 280, 6. 2674-88.

Yabluchanskiy N.I., Martyinenko A.V., Isaeva A.S. (2000). Bases of practical application of noninvasive technology of research of the regulator systems of man. Kharkiv: Osnova. 88 p. (in Russ.)

Pokrovskii V.M. (2003). Alternative View on the Mechanism of Cardiac Rhythmogenesis. Heart Lung Circ. 12, 1. 18-24.

Pokrovskiy V.M. et al (2003). Cardiac-respiratory synchronism: exposure at a man, dependence on properties of the nervous system and functional state of organism.  Usp. fiziol. nauk. 34. 89-98. (in Russ.)

Mason L.I., Patterson R.P. (2003). Determining the relationship of heart rate and blood pressure using voluntary cardio-respiratory synchronization (VCRS). Physiol Meas. 24, 4. 847-57.

Song H.-S., Lehrer P.M. (2003). The effects of specific respiratory rates on heart rate and heart rate variability. Appl Psychophysiol and Biofeedback. 28, 1. 13-23.

Cooke W.H. et al (1998). Controlled breathing protocols probe human autonomic cardiovascular rhythms. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 274. 709-18.

Bowers E.J., Murray A. (2004). Interaction between cardiac beat-to-beat interval changes and systolic blood pressure changes. Clin Auton Res. 14, 2.92-8.

Novak V. et al (1993). Influence of respiration on heart rate and blood pressure fluctuations. 74, 2. 617-26.

Torok T. et al (1998). The effects of patterned breathing and continuous positive airway pressure on cardiovascular regulation in healthy volunteers. Acta Physiol Hung. 85, 1. 1‑10.

Kovalenko S.O. et al (2011). Influencing of the regulated breathing in the range of low frequencies of heart rhythm on oscillation of stroke volume of blood and duration of interval  R-R. Visnyk Cherkas'koho universytetu. Seriya biolohichni nauky. 204. 52-7. (in Ukr.)

Radaelli al (2004). Effects of slow, controled breathing on baroreceptor control of heart rate and blood pressure in healthy men. 22, 7. 1361-70.

Calabrese P. et al (2000). Cardiorespiratory interactions during resistive load breathing. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 279. 2208-13.

Fietze I. et al (2004). Effects of positive-pressure ventilation on the spontaneous baroreflex in healthy subjects. J Appl Physiol. 96. 1155-60.

Kovalenko S.O., Kudiy L.I., Kalenychenko O.V. Heart rhythm variability in individuals with different respiration frequency. Fiziol Zn. 50, 6. 43-7. (in Ukr.)

Kovalenko S.O., Kudiy L.I.(2006). Heart rate variability in subjects with different respiratory rates. Fiziol Cheloveka. 32, 6.126-28. (in Russ.)

Kovalenko S.O. (2009).. Regulatory rhythms of haemodynamics and their individual features at people. Sc d dis. Cherkasy. 372 (in Ukr.)

Kovalenko S.O., Kudiy L.I. (2016). Heart Rate Variability. Methodical aspects. Cherkasy: Cherkas'kyy natsional'nyy universytet im. B. Khmel'nyts'koho. 298 p. (in Ukr.)

Folkov B., Neil E. (1975). Circulation. M.: Meditsina. 464 p. (in Russ.)

Konrady H.P. (1980). Respiratory arrhythmia: reflexes from the receptors of respiratory vehicle and nervus trigeminus. In: Circulation physiology. Heart Physiology L.: Nauka. 503-5. (in Russ.)

Eckberg D.L. (2003). The human respiratory gate. J Physiol. 548, 2. 339-52.

Yasuma F., Hayano J. (2004). Respiratory sinus arrhythmia. Why does the heartbeat synchronize with respiratory rhythm? Chest. 125. 683-90.

Hayutin V.M., Lukoshkova E.V. Spectral analysis of vibrations of frequency of palpitations: physiological bases and phenomena complicating him. Rossiyskiy fiziol. zhurn. 85, 7. 893-909. (in Russ.)

Hayano J., Yasuma F. (2003). Hypothesis: respiratory sinus arrhythmia is an intrinsic resting function of cardiopulmonary system. Cardiovasc Res. 58, 1. 1-9.

Bouairi E. et al (2004). Respiratory sinus arrhythmia in freely moving and anesthetized rats. J Appl Physiol. 97, 4. 1431-36.

Grossman P., van Beek J., Wientjes C. (1990). A comparison of three quantification methods for estimation of respiratory sinus arrhythmia. Psychophysiol. 27, 6. 702-14.

Grossman P., Wilhelm F.H., Spoerle M. (2004). Respiratory sinus arrhythmia, cardiac vagal control, and daily activity. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 287. 728-34.

Grossman P., Taylor E.W. (2007). Toward understanding respiratory sinus arrhythmia: relations to cardiac vagal tone, evolution and biobehavioral functions. Biol Psychol. 74, 2. 263-85.

Wilhelm F.H., Grossman P., Coyle M.A. (2004). Improving estimation of cardiac vagal tone during spontane breathing using a paced breathing calibration / // Biomed Sci Instrum. – 2004. – V.40. – P.317-324.

Pyetan E., Akselrod S. A. (2004). A theoretical appraisal of the dependence of respiratory sinus arrhythmia on gradual vagal blockade.Methods Inf Med. 43, 1.52-5.

Ben Lamine S. et al (2004). Individual differences in respiratory sinus arrhythmia. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 286, 6.2305-12.

Grossman P., Wilhelm F.H., Spoerle M. (2004). Respiratory sinus arrhythmia, cardiac vagal control, and daily activity. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 287. 728-34.

De Geus E.J., Boomsma D.I., Snieder H. (2003). Genetic correlation of exercise with heart rate and respiratory sinus arrhythmia. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 35, 8. 1287-95.

Timofeeva O.P. et al (2007). New approach to the study of quantitative descriptions of respiratory arrhythmia of heart at rats. In: V Vseros. konf. «Mehanizmyi funktsionirovaniya vistseralnyih sistem».SPb. 309-310. (in Russ.)

Strauss-Blasche al (2000). Relative tining of inspiration and expiration affects respiratory sinus arrhythmia. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 27, 8. 601-6.

Hirsch J.A., Bishop B. (1981). Respiratory sinus arrhythmia in humans: how breathing pattern modulates heart rate. Amer. J. Physiol. 241. 620-29.

Houtveen J.N., Rietveld S., de Geus E.J. (2002). Contribution of tonic vagal modulation of heart rate, central respiratory drive, respiratory depth, and respiratory freguency to respiratory sinus arrhythmia during mental stress and physical exercise. Psychophysiol. 39, 4. 427-36.

Kotani K. et al (2008). Postural-induced phase shift of respiratory sinus arrhythmia and blood pressure variations – insight from respiratory-phase domain analysis. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 1481-9.

Saul J.P. et al (1991). Transfer function analysis of the circulation: unique insights into cardiovascular regulation. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 261. 1231-45.

Elstad M. et al (2001). Respiratory sinus arrhythmia: opposite effects on systolic and mean arterial pressure in supine humans. 536, 1. 251-9.

Schafer C. et al (1998). Heartbeat synchronized with ventilation. Nature. 392, 6673. 239-240.

Giardino N.D. et al (2003). Respiratory sinus arrhythmia is associated with efficiency of pulmonary gas exchange in healthy humans. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 284, 5. 1585-91.

Myshchenko V.S. (1980). Properties of adjusting of the oxygen transport system as a reflection of functional potential of organism of sportsmen. In: Medico-biologycal bases of optimization of training process in the cyclic types of sport. 108-33. (in Russ.)

Mischenko V.S., Lyisenko E.N., Vinogradov V.E. (2007). Reactive properties of the cardiorespiratory system as a reflection of adaptation to the tense physical training in sport.  K.: Naukovyy svit. – 351 p. (in Russ.)

Clynes M. (1960). Respiratory sinus arrhythmia: laws derived from computer simulation. J. Appl. Physiol. 15, 5. 863-74.

Mironova T.V., Mironov V.A. (1998). Clinical analysis of wave structure of sine rhythm of heart (Introduction in rhythmocardiographia and atlas of rhythmocardiographam).  Chelyabinsk, 1998. 162 p. (in Russ.)

Horner R.L. et al (1995). Respiratory-related heart rate variability persists during central apnea in the dog: mechanisms and implications. J. Appl. Physiol. 78, 6. 2003-13.

Richter D.W., Spyer K.M. (1990). Cardiorespiratory control In: Central regulation of autonomic function. Oxford University Press. N. Y. 189-207.

Shykoff B.E. et al (1991). Respiratory sinus arrhythmia in dogs. J. Clin. Invest. 87, 5. 1621-27.

Gabdrahmanov R.Sh. (1993). Co-operation of respiratory and cardio-vascular systems at the level of structures of oblong brain. Fiziol Zn. 79, 11. 44-51. (in Russ.)

Akselrod S. (1995)/ Components of heart rate variability // In: Heart rate variability. N. Y. Armonk. 12. 146-64.

Schepotin B.M. (1980).To the question about sine arrhythmia. Vrachebnoe delo. 4. 42-5.

Full Text: PDF


  • There are currently no refbacks.
2014 2 36
2015 2 19
2016 1 2
2017 1 2
2018 1 2
2019 1 2
2020 1



Journal Content