Effect of interleukin-2 on antioxidant system and lipid peroxidation during physical activity

V. A. Shvets, A. V. Shkuropat

Abstract


Introduction. Adaptation to physical activity in humans and animals body occurs by changing many metabolic processes. Thus, when physical exercises are performing, the oxygen consumption in the organs increases in several times depending of intensity and duration of the load. It leads to increase of the level of free radical processes in the tissues. Lipid peroxidation processes play an important role in the mechanisms of adaptive responses, the maintenance of resistance and homeostasis, which is connected with their crucial role in regulating of structural and functional properties of the biological membranes. As interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a key cytokine for triggering a cellular immune response, it is interesting for understanding the immune response, elucidate the role of IL-2 in development of adaptation to physical stress and to establish the influence of IL-2 at the prooxidant-antioxidant system during physical training.

Purpose to study intensity of lipid peroxidation processes and condition of the antioxidant system under the influence of IL-2 and its inhibitor during physical training.

Methods. The study was performed on white outbred adult male mice (n=96). 5 experimental groups and a control group (without physical activity) were organized. Group I received an inhibitor of IL-2 (Cyclosporine, 10 mg/kg), Groups II, III and IV IL-2 (Roncoleukin, 5000, 7500 and 30,000 IU/kg, respectively), V physiological saline. Forced swimming with a load (7.5% of body weight) was used as physical training. The study was divided into periods (0, 2, 4 and
6 Weeks). The level of malonic dialdehyde was used as a marker of lipid peroxidation, and the level of catalase activity was used to determine the activity of the antioxidant system. The quantitative determination of catalase and malonic dialdehyde levels in the liver homogenate was performed using a spectrophotometric method.

Results. We found a pronounced multidirectional change in experimental parameters, investigating the dynamics of the prooxidant-antioxidant system, which may indicate the peculiarities of adaptive changes during exercise under conditions of stimulation and inhibition of IL-2.

Originality. It was first established that the inhibition of IL-2 during exercise led to increased the activity of both prooxidant and antioxidant systems. Stimulation of IL-2 at low and medium concentrations during exercise led to the activation of both systems, but the prooxidant system prevailed, and at high concentrations caused the activation of both systems. We have shown that IL-2 during exercise can affect to the activity and a balance between the prooxidant and antioxidant systems of the body.

Conclusion. It was found that inhibition of IL-2 at the 2ndWeek of exercise led to increase in the catalase activity and decrease in the MDA level, at the 4thWeek these effects were amplified. At the 6thWeek there was a partial decrease in the catalase activity, but it remained more baseline, and a significant increase in the level of MDA. It was detected that animals with receiving IL-2 at low and medium concentrations showed a significant increase in the activity of both catalase and MDA level at the 2ndWeek of physical training, at the 4thWeek there was a decrease in both indicators, and at the 6thWeek the activity catalase decreased (but did not reach baseline), and the level of MDA increased. It was installed that IL-2 at high concentration during exercise had the following effect: at the 2nd and 4thWeeks – increased the catalase activity and decreased the MDA level, and at the 6thWeek – the catalase activity continued to increase with the level of MDA.


Keywords


interleukin-2; physical activity; catalase; malonic dialdehyde; oxidative stress; prooxidant-antioxidant system

References


Golovchenko, I. V. & Shkuropat, A. V. (2020). Features of electrolyte metabolism in the blood of women 18-21 years in terms of using different types of fitness. Pryrodnychyy almanakh (biologichni nauky) [Natural almanac (biological sciences)], Kherson: FOP Vyshemirskyy V. S., 28, 33-43. doi: 10.32999/ksu2524-0838/2020-28-3 (in Ukr.)

Terra, R., Silva, S. A. G., Pinto, V. S. & Dutra, P. M. L. (2012). Effect of exercise on immune system: response, adaptation and cell signaling. Revista Brasileira de Medicina do Esporte, 18(3), 208-214. doi: 10.1590/S1517-86922012000300015

Pedersen, B. K. & Hoffman-Goetz, L. (2000). Exercise and the immune system: regulation, integration, and adaptation. Physiological Reviews, 80(3), 1055-1081. doi: 10.1152/physrev.2000.80.3.1055

Cleto, L. S., Oleto, A. F., Sousa, L. P., Barreto, T. O., Cruz, J. S., et al. (2011). Plasma cytokine response, lipid peroxidation and NF-kB activation in skeletal muscle following maximum progressive swimming. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 44(6), 546-552. doi: 10.1590/S0100-879X2011007500050

Meerson, F. Z. & Pshennikova, M. G. (1988). Adaptation to stressful situations and physical activity. Moscow: Medicine. 256 p. (in Rus).

Shvets, V. A. & Hasіuk, O. M. (2019). Cytokins participation of s in adaption reactions (literature review). Pryrodnychyy almanakh (biologichni nauky) [Natural almanac (biological sciences)], Kherson: FOP Vyshemyrskyy V. S., 27, 145-161. doi: 10.32999/ksu2524-0838/2019-27-10 (in Ukr.)

Velichko, T. I. (2015). Free radical processes and possible manifestations of oxidative stress in conditions of physical loads. Vestnik Volzhskogo universiteta imeni V. N. Tatishcheva [Bulletin of the Volga University named after V. N. Tatishcheva], 4(19), 286-293. (in Rus).

Scheele, C., Nielsen, S. & Pedersen, B. K. (2009). ROS and myokines promote muscle adaptation to exercise. Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism, 20(3), 95-99. doi: 10.1016/j.tem.2008.12.002

Shvets, V. A., Shkuropat, A. V. & Lebid A. Ye. (2020). Adrenaline as an indicator of adaptive processes of the body during exercise under the influence of interleukin-2. Biologichni doslidzhennya. 2020: Zbirnyk naukovykh prats [Biological research. 2020: Collection of scientific works], Zhytomyr, 258-261. (in Ukr.)

Korytko, Z. I. (2013). Modern ideas about the general mechanisms of adaptation of an organism to action of extreme influences. Visnyk problem biologiyi i medytsyny [Bulletin of problems of biology and medicine], 4(1), 28-35. (in Ukr.)

Jafari, M., Salehi, M., Zardooz, H. & Rostamkhani F. (2014). Response of liver antioxidant defense system to acute and chronic physical and psychological stresses in male rats. Experimental and Clinical Sciences, 13, 161-171.

Nocella, Cr., Cammisotto, V., Pigozzi, F., Borrione, P., Fossati, Ch., et al. (2019). Impairment between oxidant and antioxidant systems: short- and long-term implications for athletes’. Health Nutrients, 11(6), 1353. doi: 10.3390/nu11061353

Vassilakopoulos, Th., Karatza, M.-H., Katsaounou, P., Kollintza, A., Zakynthinos, Sp., et al. (2003). Antioxidants attenuate the plasma cytokine response to exercise in humans. The Journal of Applied Physiology, 94(3), 1025-1032. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00735.2002

Fisher-Wellman, K. & Bloomer R. (2009). Acute exercise and oxidative stress: a 30 year history. Dynamic Medicine, 8(1), 1-25. doi: 10.1186/1476-5918-8-1

Knez, W. L., Jenkins, D. G. & Coombes, J. S. (2007). Oxidative stress in half and full Ironman triathletes. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 39(2), 283-288. doi: 10.1249/01.mss.0000246999.09718.0c

Davies, K. J. (2000). Oxidative stress, antioxidant defenses, and damage removal, repair, and replacement systems. International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 50, 279-289. doi: 10.1080/713803728

Kumral, Z. N. O., Sener, G., Ozgur, S., Koc, M., Suleymanoglu, S., et al. (2016). Regular exercise alleviates renovascular hypertension-induced cardiac/endothelial dysfunction and oxidative injury in rats. Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 67(1), 45-55.

Tang, Q. (2015). Therapeutic window of Interleukin-2 for autoimmune diseases. Diabetes, 64, 1912-1913. doi: 10.2337/db15-0188

Malek, Th. R. (2008). The biology of Interleukin-2. The Annual Review of Immunology, 26, 453-479. doi: 10.1146/annurev.immunol.26.021607.090357

Rosa Neto, J. C., Lira, F. S, Zanchi, N. E., Oyama, L. M., Pimentel, G. D., et al. (2011). Acute exhaustive exercise regulates IL-2, IL-4 and MyoD in skeletal muscle but not adipose tissue in rats. Lipids in Health and Disease, 10, 97. doi: 10.1186/1476-511X-10-97

Wang, G., König, R., Ansari, G. A. S. & Khan, M. F. (2008). Lipid peroxidation-derived aldehyde-protein adducts contribute to trichloroethene-mediated autoimmunity via activation of CD4+ T cells. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 44(7), 1475-1482. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2008.01.012

Hayek, S. E. I., Allouch, F., Geagea, L. & Talih, F. (2019). Interleukin-2 and the Septohippocampal System: an update on intrinsic actions and autoimmune processes relevant to neuropsychiatric disorders. Methods in Molecular Biology, 2011, 511-530. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-9554-7_30

Chavez, A. R. de V., Buchser, W., Basse, P. H., Liang, X., Appleman, L. J., et al. (2009). Pharmacologic administration of Interleukin-2. Cytokine Therapies: (Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences), 1182, 14-27. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.05160.x

Belikov, A. V., Schraven, B. & Simeoni, L. (2015). T cells and reactive oxygen species. Journal of Biomedical Science, 22, 85. doi: 10.1186/s12929-015-0194-3

Korolyuk, M. A., Ivanova, L. I., Mayorova, I. G. & Tokarev, V. E. (1988). Method for determination of catalase activity. Laboratornoe delo [Laboratory work], 1, 16-19. (in Rus).

Andreeva, L. I., Kozhemyakina, A. A. & Kishkun, A. A. (1988). Modification of the method for determining lipid peroxides in the test with thiobarbital acid. Laboratornoe delo [Laboratory work], 11, 41-43. (in Rus).

Tkachenko, H., Kurhaluk, N., Andriichuk, A., Gasiuk, O. & Beschasnyi, S. (2014). Oxidative stress biomarkers in liver of sea trout (Salmo trutta m. trutta L.) affected by ulcerative dermal necrosis syndrome. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 14, 391-402. doi: 10.4194/1303-2712-v14_2_09


Full Text: PDF

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.
Archive
2014 2 36
2015 2 19
2016 1 2
2017 1 2
2018 1 2
2019 1 2
2020 1

User

Information

Journal Content

Browse

Language