Ecological and biological basis of selection of components for mixed crop sowing

V. O. Prykhodko, S. P. Poltoretskyi, V. Y. Bilonozhko

Abstract


Introduction.The main task of the plant growing field and its accompanying fodder production is the production of fodders in the required amount for the uninterrupted provision of livestock production by high qualitative, cheap fodders and, above all, balanced by protein.Unfortunately, the stock of cattle has decreased by 2.7 times in the past few years. Deficit of digestible protein in animal rations is 25%, which leads to fodder over-consumption by 1.3-1.4 times and products shortage by 30-34%, and, in turn, to the increase in products price by 2.5.One can solve these problems by using mixed sowings of corn with high-protein components.

Corn is one of the most common fodder crops, there is a lot of carbohydrates in its herbage and silage, but low protein (60-75 gramsper fodder unit), which is lower than zootechnical standards (100-110 g).It can be used one of the cheapest methods to enrich corn herbage and silage for protein compounds by using its mixed sowings with high-protein crops. The value of the mixed sowings is that they allow improving fodder quality, increasing the area of sowings assimilation, reducing the loss of solar energy, using moisture and nutrients in a more productive way.

However, the lack of knowing the peculiarities of yeild formation, depending on the selection of high-protein components and methods of sowing, leads to the deterrence of the expansion of areas under mixed sowings of corn while growing for silage.T herefore, researches in this area are topical, since they provide the opportunity to develop and substantiate measures to improve the quality and increase the productivity of mixed sowings of corn with high-protein components.

Purpose. The purpose of the study is to substantiate theoretically and determine the optimal variety composition of corn mixes with high-protein crops for fodder in specific soil-and-climatic conditions.

Material and methods. General scientific methods, in particular, such as: hypothesis, observation, analysis, synthesis, induction and deduction, abstraction and generalization were used during performing the study. Own observations and literary sources on the chosen sphere of the research were the material basis.

Results and discussion. It is important to select the components properly when growing corn for fodder in the compatible sowings for the purpose to obtain high yields of herbage with increased protein content. The following legumes for simultaneous growing with corn for silage are selected which enter the phase of full beans development at the time of milk-waxy and waxy ripeness of corn grains, their leaves still remain green, and the stems are succulent. Its mixed sowings with soybean deserve the greatest attention among numerous possible combinations of corn growth together with grain legumes. This crop, like corn, belongs to the plants of short light day and late term of sowing, and their seedlings appear at the same time under the compatible sowing.

Also, both crops have close periods of slow and intensive growth, and under correct selection of the components at the time of panicle heading by corn plants, soybeans enter into the phase of mass flowering, and into the phase of the beginning of beans yellowing of the lower layer during the period of milk-waxy and waxy ripeness of corn grains. In addition, quite good results on the formation of a large number of qualitative fodders can be obtained under the compatible sowing of cereal crops (corn, Sudan grass and others) with legumes such as fodder beans, melilot, white lupine and fodder peas. Furthermore, choosing of the varieties adapted to the specific soil-and-climatic conditions, the optimal ratio by the mass of seeding standards of the mixtures and the sufficient level of mineral nutrition have important significance.

Conclusions. Mixed sowings of corn with high-protein components can provide higher yields of herbage and gathering of digestible protein in comparison with a single-crop sowing. At the same time, compatible sowing contributes to the improvement of the growth processes of all crops by optimizing the water and nutrient regimes of the soil, light and temperature conditions and photosynthesis processes by the above-ground mass of the plants.


Keywords


corn; high-protein crops; single-crop and mixed sowing; yield; fodder quality; digestible protein; fodder unit

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