The influence of different CO2 levels on hemodynamics: analytical review of literature

V. A. Zavhorodnia

Abstract


Introduction. As the body responds instantly to changes in CO2 concentration by 0.1% and attracts dozens of compensatory mechanisms to bring it back to normal, the question of studying the mechanisms of carbon (IV) oxide effects on different parts of the cardiovascular system remains relevant.

Purpose. To analyze scientific literature on the effect of different levels of carbon dioxide on the central and peripheral hemodynamics of humans.

Methods. The analysis of scientific literature.

Results. The scientific literature concerning the influence of hyper- and hypocapnia on the central and peripheral hemodynamics of a person is analyzed. Changes in resistance of resistance vessels and blood flow velocity at different levels of CO2 in arterial blood are shown. It is noted that in contrast to direct vasodilator effects on coronary circulation, hypercapnia causes vasoconstriction in the pulmonary circulation. There is also a reactivity of heart rate variability, heart rate and cardiac output under such influences. According to modern data, a pure change in cardiac activity during hypercapnia depends on the balance between the direct inhibitory effect of CO2 and the compensatory adjustments mediated by the pathways of the chemoreflex. The manifestations and mechanisms of action of carbon (IV) oxide on the cardiovascular system are characterized. Because the decrease in the concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood leads to an increase in the affinity of oxygen to hemoglobin, and therefore to the development of hypoxia with all its consequences, shows a relatively greater importance of CO2 for the regulation of cerebral blood flow than O2. The mechanisms of activation of nitric oxide in hypercapnic states and its participation in vasodilation are described. Areas of application of carbon (IV) oxide level control and possible disturbances in its concentration fluctuations are shown.

Conclusion. The literature analysis shows the necessity of further investigation of both metodical and theoretical aspects of the influence of different levels of CO2 on human haemodynamicsparameters.

Keywords


hypercapnia; CO2; hemodynamics; respiratory alkalosis; hyperventilation; hypocapnia

References


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