The effect of sensory deprivation on the nervous system specifics
Introduction. The research is devoted to the characteristics of human sensor-motor functions, functional mobility and dynamic muscular endurance of the hand movement processes among schoolchildren aged 10–12. Limited input of the information caused by one or more analyzers impairment, creates unusual conditions for the development of a child's psyche. Sensory deprivation creates discomfort and problems during the cognizing of reality by children. The study relevance is the necessity to obtain and analyze new scientific data on the specificity of the influence of visual and auditory deprivation on the nervous system specifics.
Objective. The objective is to obtain and analyze new scientific data about the specificity of the influence of auditory and visual sensory deprivation on the sensorimotor reaction, functional mobility of neural processes and dynamic muscular endurance of the hand movement processes among schoolchildren aged 10–12.
Methods. The study was conducted among 87 children aged 10-12 years. All the pupils were divided into three groups: I – a control group (healthy children), II – a group of children with visual impairments, ІІІ – a group of children with hearing impairments. The experimental study for every examined person lasted no more than 30 minutes.
The methods were implemented with using of the computer system "Diagnosician-1M", developed by the professors M. Makarenko and V. Lyzohub. The order of research for the whole contingent of the subjects was carried out according to the same scheme and was as follows: first, the sensor-motor reacting to stimuli of different complexity (figures and sounds), functional mobility of the nerve processes and tapping test.
Results. Having performed a statistical analysis of the findings on latent periods of varying complexity of sensor-motor reactions among children with sensory deprivation and control group, it is evident that the level on the stimulus in the form of figures was higher among children with hearing impairments and in the form of the sounds – in the group of children with visual impairments. The children from the experimental group (with hearing impairments) have the best indicators of sensorimotor reaction to sound stimuli of low tonality, rather than high-level stimuli. On the basis of the analysis of the findings on the sensorimotor reaction, we can assume that compensatory and adaptive processes occur in the groups of pupils with sensory deprivation (the compensation process of the lost function of a certain analyzer at the expense of another).
After analyzing the results of the level of functional mobility of neural processes, we can state that statistically indicators of children with auditory sensory deprivation almost do not differ from similar indicators of children from the control group. However, for pupils with visual impairments, the level of functional mobility and the time of central processing of information to some extent are shorter.
When passing tapping-test, there were found no significant differences in experimental groups in muscle endurance rates compared to healthy schoolchildren. Although the control group's figures are slightly higher.
Conclusion. During the studying of the sensorimotor reaction to the stress of varying degrees of difficulty, it was found that latent periods of differing by the complexity visual-motor responses among children with auditory sensory deprivation to the figures are much better than among children from the control group and children with visual impairment. However, pupils with visual sensory deprivation have better latency rates to different complexity of reactions to sounds. This is due to the fact that the children with defective vision have better-developed auditory memory, and they are more likely to understand and determine the source of the sound.
In the experimental group (with hearing impairments), the best indicators of sensory-motor response were shown to sound stimuli of low tone, rather than to high-level stimuli.
Having processed the results of the level of functional mobility of the nerve processes, it was found that the indicators among children with auditory sensory deprivation do not statistically differ from similar indicators in the control group children. However, among students with hearing impairment, indicators of functional mobility level of the nervous processes and the time on central processing of information in the mode of "feedback" are shorter in comparison with the children with weak vision. Among the students from the control group and the group of children with hearing impairment, persons with a level of functional mobility of the nervous processes are more common. In the group of students with visual deprivation, children with lower functional mobility of the nervous processes (lower than the average) are more common.
When passing tapping-test in experimental groups, there were found no significant differences in muscle endurance indices compared to healthy schoolchildren. Although the control group's figures are slightly higher, it can be explained by their better physical training and the lack of restrictions on doing a particular sport.
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