The effect of sensory deprivation on sensory reactionin children
Introduction.The study devoted to the characteristics of human sensorimotor functions. It is essential to understanding the physiological mechanisms of the integrative activity of the brain, which has complex dynamic organisation of its various structures, developing the types of individual behavior. The sensorimotor reactions reflect the integration between neurophysiological and mental processes. They show interaction between the sensory and motor components of human mental activity. The initiation, regulation, control and correction of all psychomotor system types are based on sensory and kinesthetic information coming from analyzers. It also establishes the cognitive functions in the process of children’s individual development. Limited access to the information, connecting with one or more analyzers impairment, creates unusual conditions for the development of human psyche.
Purpose. The aim is obtain and analyze new scientific data about specificity of the influence of auditory and visual sensory deprivation on the sensorimotor response.
Methods. The study was conducted among 87 children aged 9 years. All the students were divided into three groups: I – a control group (healthy children), II – a group of children with hearing impairments, ІІІ – a group of children with visual impairments. The experimental study for each person surveyed lasted no more than 30 minutesfor research.
At the beginning of the study each person was individually acquainted with the methods of sensorimotor reaction.The methods were implemented with using the computer system "Diagnost-1M" that was developed by professors M. Makarenko and V.Lyzohub.
Results.The research of the sensorimotor reactionto acoustic and visual stimuli revealed: there is much lower index of latency rates of different complexity of responds to sounds in the group of children with auditory sensory deprivation; children with hearing impairments have better index of sensory-motor response to sound stimuli of low tonality than high tonality; the index of sounds in the group of children with visual sensory deprivation indicate that they have better oral memory, they are more likely to understand and determine the source of sound.There is also better index of sensorimotor response on figures in the control group than in experimental ones.This is because of the visual analyzer problems in children with visual impairment and the problems of hearing aids in children with hearing impairments.
Conclusion.The experiment showed better index of sensorimotor functions to sounds in children of the control group in contrast to the experimental one.It connects with the problems of hearing aids in children with hearing impairments.There are significant differences between the index of latent period of the reaction of of choosing one from three stimuli (LP Rc1-3) and LP Rc2-3 in children with sensory deprivations, in contrast to healthy ones.It means that hearing-impaired person are more likely to perceive sounds of low tone level than medium or high.
The best values of sensorimotor functions were observed when used sounds as stimuli in children of the experimental group (with visual impairment), in contrast to the group of children with hearing impairments.This is due to the fact that the weak-sighted have better developed auditory memory, they are more likely to understand and determine the source of sound.
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