From the history of Ukrainian bird names: modern Marsh, Coal, and Blue tits in the past
Introduction. Approval of national priorities in organization of scientific work led to review of the system of bird names that had existed for decades and introduction of a new one. However, diversity of Ukrainian bird names is not limited to their present official nomenclature. We consider it useful to understand the whole spectrum of scientific and common notions of the past, reflecting different species of tits. The purpose – to clarify origins of modern marsh, coal, and blue tits.
Material and Methods. Historical names of birds inhabiting the territory of Ukraine were recorded both in the first surveys of the avifauna written in Ukrainian language and in scientific works of the 19th century – the first third of the 20th century. Analysis of use of certain terms on birds allowed tracing formation of Ukrainian bird names.
Results. In the scientific literature of the 1920s the names „pukhlyak brunatnyy” (plump brown, chestnut colour), and „pukhlyak-luhivka” (plump meadow) were used for marsh tit (Parus palustris). Modern Ukrainian name „bolotyana hayichka” appeared in 1930s. Ukrainian name blue tit (Parus coeruleus) – „blakytna synytsya” (blue tit) was used in 1920s, though other names were used along with it. From 1930s until now another Ukrainian variant was used – „holuba synytsya” (blue tit). Modern Ukrainian name coal tit (Parus ater) – „chorna synytsya” (black tit) has an old historical basis. In 1920s and 1930s quite good name of this species was used – „mala synytsya” (small tit). Later the last name of the bird felt out of use, but along with „chorna synytsya” the name „moskovka” (moscovite) was used. The name „chorna synytsya” is used nowadays.
Originality. The subject has not been intentionally studied before. Results of the study allow extending Ukrainian terminological resource of biological science through the use of historical national bird names.
Conclusions. Names of different species of tits that were used in the past absorbed the diversity of Ukrainian language and successfully reflected the nature of birds. The author suggests options for verification of Ukrainian names of birds, being fair and reasonable both from a historical point of view and based on practice of use of bird names.
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