Training of the athletes with use of hypoxic conditions
Introduction. High performance mountain training as a means of improving the functionality of the athletes and sports results in all sports-related display of endurance athletes, proven by many researchers in the field of sports physiology.
Purpose. Analyze and summarize the literature on the issues connected with training of the athletes with use of hypoxic conditions.
Methods. Analysis of special scientific and methodical literature, which considers the physiological mechanisms of the athletes adaptation to hypoxia.
Results. Generalization of the results of many studies on the problem of human adaptation to high-altitude hypoxia, possible to distinguish between a number of coordinated adaptive mechanisms: 1) mechanisms, mobilization of which can provide sufficient oxygen to the organism, despite the deficiency in the medium: hyperventilation; hyperfunction of heart, enabling the movement of the lungs to the tissues of an increased amount of blood; 2) polycythemia corresponding increase oxygen capacity; 3) the mechanisms that make possible a sufficient supply of oxygen to the brain, heart and other vital organs, despite the hypoxemia, namely the expansion of arteries and capillaries of the brain, heart, etc .; 4) decrease the diffusion distance for oxygen between the capillary wall and the mitochondria of cells by formation of new capillaries and changes the properties of cell membranes; 5) increasing the ability of cells to dispose the oxygen concentration due to the increase of myoglobin; increasing the ability of cells and tissue disposed of oxygen from the blood to form ATP, despite the lack of oxygen; 6) increase anaerobic resynthesis of ATP by activation of glycolysis.
Conclusion. It has been shown that as a result of athletic training and continuous training actions load of hypoxia in the body athlete occur various morphological and functional changes, which determine the state of fitness of the athlete. It is very urgent is the need for continuous improvement all around athlete training.
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