Functional organization of visual-motor reactions of the different complexity levels in persons with auditory deprivation
Introduction. Understanding the physiological mechanisms of the integrative activity of the brain closely connected with the research of the peculiarities of the formation the different complexity of sensorimotor functions in human ontogenesis. As the results of the research the absence or existence of the cross modal plasticity and multisensory information processing with dysfunctions of the hearing are caused the long-term changes in subcortical and cortical structures of the brain. Today it’s unknown how the functional reorganization of the visual-motor system of teenagers and the young men is going in the conditions of the limitation the sound afferentation. The registration of sensomotor reactions of the visual modality on the load of the different degree of the complexity is one of the non-invasive techniques for the study of sensorimotor functions in the deaf persons.
Purpose.To identify the patterns and features of the functional reorganization visual-motor functions of the different levels of the complexity in teenagers and young men with the auditory deprivation.
Methods.The research involved 46 teenagers and the young men with auditory deprivation (congenital or acquired in the early childhood deafness) and the same number of their peers with the normal hearing. The research was carried out according to the norms of bioethics and the regulations of 1975 Helsinki Declaration. The understanding of the visual-motor properties included the determination of the characteristics of the latent periods of the simple visual-motor reaction (SVMR) and the complex reactions of the selection one of the three (RS1-3) and the differentiation two of the three stimuli (RS2-3). The method and the computer diagnostic system "Diagnost-1M" was used for the research of visual-motor reactions of the different difficulty levels.
Results. The formation dynamics of sensorimotor functions in the both research groups had the common patterns and unfolded according to the genetically determined program of the age-related changes. The indicators of visual-motor reactions of the different complexity were significantly large in the persons of 14-15 years old with hearing deprivation than in such individuals of this age with the normal hearing. Probably the differentiations are explained by the differences in the morpho-functional reconstructions of the neural nets, the neuro-muscular system, the subcortical structures of the brain which involved in the information processing in people with the normal and the limited input afferentation.
The comparison of the reduction dynamics of the latent time visual-motor reactions of the various difficulty degrees in the age range of 14-21 years old with the different status of auditory function showed the greatest rate of decline between the groups of 14-15 and 16-17 years old.
There have been established the significant differences between the indicators of the sensory component (SC) and motor component (MC) of the differential visual-motor reaction between the examinees with the different status of auditory function in the research persons of the all age periods (p<0.05). For the examinees with the deprivation of the auditory function the increasing of the rate of the differentiation mostly has been depended by time of the central processing of the information (CPI), SC and to a lesser extent from the maturation of MC. That is, the significantly reduced speed of MC in the deaf persons was compensated by the increased activity of SC. The improvement of the discriminative function of the neural ensembles in the individuals with the normal hearing function was occurring in the first place by the reducing of the time MC and CPI during the complex of RS2-3.
Originality. In the examinees people with the auditory deprivation the contribution of the time components RS2-3 as SC and CPI, were lower than in the persons with the normal hearing, and MC was much larger (almost 25%) than in the persons with normal hearing. So the below motor reaction of the deaf persons was compensated by the increased reactivity of the SC and CPI.
Conclusion.In the deaf teenagers and the young men the latent periods of the simple and the complex reactions of the choice and the differentiation of visual-motor functions were significantly the higher than in the age groups with the normal hearing and gradually decreased, reaching maximum of the development in the persons of 18-21 years old. The greatest rate of the decrease in the latent time the visual-motor reactions of the various degrees of complexity in the age range of 14-21 years old, regardless of the status of auditory function were installed between the groups of 14-15 and
16-17 years old. The gradual decrease of the time of SC, CPI and MC have been proven with the age; the lesser response time of the sensor component and the longer time of the motor component in the deaf persons in comparison with people with the normal hearing; significantly the lower motor reaction of the deaf persons was compensated by the hyperactivity of SC and CPI.
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