Electrical activity of the human brain during testing mathematical intelligence for subtest "arithmetic operations" of Amthauer test
Introduction. Intelligence defines success in study and skills development and includes the verbal, math and other skills. It is important that the lack of mathematical literacy reduces the quality of life more than the usual lack of literacy. Survey questions mathematical intelligence and abilities of human to arithmetic appears fairly sharply. In addition, it is known that male and female brains function differently.
Purpose. The aim of our study was to investigate differences in the electrical activity of the brain in human of different sexes when passing subtest "Arithmetic Problems" of the Intelligent Structure Test by Amthauer.
Methods. As the surveyed 20 men and 20 women, right-handed persons, age 20±3 years, the students of 1-5 courses of the Kyiv National Taras Shevchenko University took part in research. Each of the surveyed passed computer implementation subtest “Arithmetic Problems” of the Intelligent Structure Test by Amthauer that is used to assess the mathematical component of intelligence. In all inspected registered an electroencephalogram (EEG) during realization of testing. In every taking for the frequency ranges of EEG- delta(0,5-3,9 Hz), theta (4,0-7,9 Hz), alpha(8-12,9 Hz), beta 1(13,0-19,9 Hz) and beta 2(20,0-35 Hz) the full power of spectrum was calculated. Statistical analysis was performed using STATISTICA 8.0 (StatSoft, USA, 2008). Normal distribution was checked interchangeable Shapiro-Wilk test. Almost all the parameters was different from the normal (p <0,05). The(Me) and lower (25%) and upper (75%) quartiles: Me [25%; 75%] was using for a description of the sampling distribution.
Results. The formation of the flow of incoming information and evaluation correctness response are in δ-band. In women formed the fronto-parietal system monitor entering information flow when activated prefrontal cortex that carried out the regulation of cognitive functions. Organization of neural network and control the error of answers are associated with activity in the θ-band. In the α-band synchronization took place nearly the entire scalp. α-activity is associated with a range of highly specialized perception, attention and memorization processes. We can say that women were involved all areas of the brain in processing mathematical problems. Significant reduction of the power in β1-band in the left hemisphere indicating that women are not attracted verbal logical-semantic analysis to solve mathematical problems. Activity in the β2-band associated with per se and direct local information processing in neural networks. Temporal areas of the brain associated with the creation of associations and associative memory. It was found increased activity in the posterior associative cortex and right temporal plots. Suggests that, women solve arithmetic problems associated. Also left angular gyrus area was activity, when woman solving math problems.
In men have been identified are actually two information streams (verbal and shaped), while solving arithmetic problems. Anterior cingulate cortex performs coordinating role between this streams. Also was formed a broad front-parietal neural network involving the temporal regions of both hemispheres. The verbal flow formed in the left visual cortex (perception incentives), left angular gyrus (perception of numbers) and Brocka and Wernicke areas. The imagery flow formed in the right visual cortex and temporal areas of the right hemisphere that are associated with the creation and finding associations. Synchronization in the α-band associated with arithmetic calculations and showed the inclusion the posterior associative cortex and right frontal zone to these processes. The immediate processing of mathematical tasks carried out in the right occipital area, which is associated with the creation of imaginative metaphors and intermodal association.
Originality. It has been studied brain function of men and women, while the test solutions "Arithmetic problem" of the Intelligent Structure Test by Amthauer
Conclusion. Women decide arithmetic problems using associations involving the left angular gyrus. In man, the immediate processing of mathematical tasks carried out in the right occipital area, which is associated with the creation of imaginative metaphors and intermodal association.
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