Peculiarities of hydrocarbons exchange in the organism of Lymnaea stagnalis under trematode invasion

G. Ye. Kyrychuk


Purpose. Peculiarities of hydrocarbons exchange in different tissues (haemolymph) and organs (hepatopancreas, mantle) of uninvaded and invaded with Echinoparyphium aconiatum parthenitae and cercariae freshwater mollusks Lymnaea stagnalis are researched.

Methods. Lymnaea stagnalis (Linne, 1758) (247 sp) collected in June-August of 2006 – 2009 in the river Teteriv basin (Zhytomyr city). The content of glucose was established with glucotoxicity method; pyruvate (PVC) – with Umbright method, lactate (LA) – after reaction with paraoxidephenyl [13] The activity of α-amylase (EC ) was established after Karavey, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH or LD) (EC was established after [14]. Evaluating enzymes activity, the protein content was measured after Lowry [15]. The meaning of [NAD+]/[NADH] ratio index was calculated using modified methods [16]. The intensivity of final products colouring in all cases was established with photometry (КФК-3). All in all 321 biochemical experiences were done in three-time repetition.

Results. It is established that trematode invasion causes the increase of α-amylase activity by 3,6 times in the hepatopancreas and by 1,6 times in the mantle. But in the haemolymph of the invaded animals statistically reliable differences in α-amylase activity were not established. The glucose concentration in the researched mollusks varies within 0,1852-0,7407 mmole/l. Unlike in phytophages [10], in detritophages trematode invasion causes the decrease of glucose content in all researched organs and tissues (in the haemolymph – by 51,89%, in the hepatopancreas – by 2 times, in the mantle – by 1,8 times) and the development of hypoglycemia. Uninvaded animals have minimum PVC content in the mantle and the hepatopancreas which can be explained by high intensity of gluconeogenesis in these tissues. In the haemolymph the PVC concentration is by 25-30 times higher in comparison with other researched organs. The hepatopancreas of invaded animals, in comparison with uninvaded ones, is characterized with PVC concentration decrease by 1,67 times. Under trematode invasion the increase of LA by 32,65% (P> 99,99%) is registered in the hepatopancreas. In the rest of researched tissues and organs statistically reliable differences in LA content in invaded and uninvaded animals were not established. The activity of LDH in all researched tissues and organs of invaded L. stagnalis increases (in the mantle by 5,4 times, in the haemolymph by 3,4 times, in the hepatopancreas by 1,8 times). As for the nicotinamide coenzymes free forms ratio, its meaning in uninvaded species is 11:1 in the hepatopancreas; 39:1 – in the mantle; 6:1 – in the haemolymph. In invaded animals the discussed ratio increases in hepatopancreas to 22:1 and in the haemolymph to 7:1. Adaptive energy level of L. stagnalis organism is provided by the balance of the creation, the redistribution and the disposal of the main cell energetic components – the hydrocarbons. The efficiency of this process is reached by the concordance in functioning of the hepatopancreas (metabolic activity), the mantle (main energy resource depot), the haemolymph (the support of metabolites homeostasis). The invasion activates the systems of energy exchange: glycolysis – gluconeogenesis – glucoalanine cycle which functions as the support of glucose equilibrium concentrations and other carbohydrate metabolism intermediates and provides the energetic and acid-bases homeostasis which is proved by the increase of [NAD+]/[NADH] ratio index.

Conclusions. In future, the action of biotic factors on mollusks groups with different nutrition types and the peculiarities of metabolism processes in their organisms can be researched.


freshwater mollusks; trematode invasion; detritophages; hydrocarbons exchange; glucose; lactate; pyruvate; [NAD+]/[NADH] ratio; α-amylase; lactate dehydrogenase


Stadnichenko, A. P. (2006). Lymnaeidae and Acroloxidae Ukraine: the methods of collecting and studying the biology, ecology, useful and harmful value: monograph. Zhitomir: Ruta (in Rus)

Birher, T. I. (1979). The metabolism of aquatic invertebrates in the aquatic environment. K.: Science Thought (in Rus)

Shulman, G. E., Abolmasova, G. I., Stolbov A. Ya. (1993). The use of protein in the energy metabolism of aquatic organisms. Uspehi sovremennoy biologii (The successes of modern biology), Vol. 113, № 5, 576–586 (in Rus)

Handziura, V. P., Hrubinko, V. V. (2008). Harmfulness concept in ecology. Kyiv, Ternopil: Publisher TNPU them V. Hnatiuk (in Ukr.)

Nikanorov, A. M., Zhulidov, A. V., Pokarzhevskiy, A. D. (1985). Biomonitoring of heavy metals in freshwater ecosystems. L.: Gidrometeoizdat (in Rus)

Storey, K. B. (1988). Mechanisms of glycolytic control during facultative anaerobiosis in a marine mollusc: Tissue-specific analysis of glycogen phosphorylase and fructose-2,6-bisphosphate. J. Car.Zool. Vol. 66, № 8, 1767–1771.

Subramanyam, O. V. (1984). Neuroendocrine control of carbohydrate metabolism in the freshwater bivalve mollusc Lamellidens marginalis. Experientia, Vol. 40, № 12.

Stadnichenko, A. P. (1978). Changing some parameters of carbohydrate metabolism in the hemolymph of freshwater mussels in the invasion of their parthenitae and trematode larvae. Parazitologiya (Parasitology), Vol. 12, 6, 472–478 (in Rus)

Huminskiy, O.V., Mischenko R.D. (1988). Effect of trematodes on the activity of a-amylase haemolymph of freshwater gastropods (GASTROPODA, PULMONATA, BULINIDAE). Parazitologiya (Parasitology), Vol. 17, 5, 439-442 (in Rus)

Kyrychuk, H. Ye. (2009). Features carbohydrate and energy metabolism in the body Vitushka purple (Planorbarius purpura) for actions biotic factors. Hidrobiolohichnyi zhurnal (Hydrobiological journal), Vol. 45, 1, 74-83 (in Ukr.)

Vasulenko, O. M. (2008). Ecology Power Lymnaea (Mollusca, Pulmonata, Lymnaeidae) Central Polissya: Thesis for the Degree of kandat biological sciences 03.00.16 specialty "Ecology". Chernivtsi (in Ukr.)

Hlebovich, V. V. (1981). Acclimation of animal organisms. L.: Science (in Rus)

Horyachkovskiy, A. M. (1994). Handbook of Clinical Biochemistry. Odessa: OKFA (in Rus)

Shkorbatov, H.L., Starobohatov, Ya. I. (1990). Methods of studying. L.: 63–86 (in Rus)

Lowry, O. H., Rosebrough, N. Z., Lowry, O. H., Tarr, A. L., Randall, R. C. (1951). Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J. Biol. Chem. Vol. 193, 1, 265–275.

Velikiy, N. N., Parhomets, P. K. (1976). The role of the redox state of nicotinamide coenzymes in the regulation of cellular metabolism. Vitaminu (Vitamins), 9, 3–15 (in Rus)

Khochachka, P., Somero, Dzh. (1988). Biochemical adaptation. М.: Peace (in Rus)

Horomosova, S. A., Shapiro, A. Z. (1984). The main features of the biochemistry of energy metabolism mussels. М.: Light and food industry (in Rus)

Prosser, L. (1977). Comparative physiology of animals. М.: Peace, Vol. 1, 440–443 (in Rus)

Pavlichenko, V.V., Shatilina, Zh.M., Bedulina, D.S., Protopopova, M.V. (2009). The accumulation of lactate and warm shock proteins (HSP) in acute heat stress in the Baikal termochustvitelnyh Eulimnogammarus vittatus and Eulimnogammarus marituji (CRUSTACEA, AMPHIPODA). Amurskiy zoologicheskiy zhurnal (Amur Zoological Journal), 3, 190-196 (in Rus)

Full Text: PDF (Українська)


  • There are currently no refbacks.
2014 2 36
2015 2 19
2016 1 2
2017 1 2
2018 1 2
2019 1 2
2020 1



Journal Content