Dust load on tree plantings of Khmelnitsky city
Problem: Dust is one of the major air pollutants in urban areas. The increase in dust load on plants in the cities causes the inhibition of biosynthetic processes, clogging of stomata, inhibition of plant growth.
Purpose: rating of dust pollution in atmospheric air of Khmelnitsky city, which is determined by the amount of dust on leaf-plates of street tree plantations.
Methods: we used the method of selecting leaves of woody plants by comparing their morphological, anatomical and functional analysis. The dynamic of dust content in plants was determined by the method of I. Kalinin.
Results: Analysis amount of dust and its accumulation in leaf plates of trees showed that the greatest amount of dust accumulates in leaves surface of poplar pyramidal (PopuluspyramidalisRoz.) and horse chestnut (Aesculushippocastanum) and the least accumulated in maple usual (Acerplatanoides) and lime cordata ( Tiliacordata).
These species of woody plants are relatively resistant to dust contamination. The smallest amount of dust accumulates in leaf plates because of their rough, fleecy and corrugated surfaces. The ability of tree species to withstand a certain air pollution depends on internally-biological characteristics of the species, a complex of soil-climatic conditions, temperature and humidity, plant age and time of year. First of all, young plants, their leaves and shoots are exposed to harmful substances.
Originality. It is proved that with the help of green spaces decreases an amount of dust in the air, due to slowing down the speed of the polluted stream in green areas and loss of dust on the surface of leaves, pine needles, branches and trunks. As a result of the temperature difference under the trees arise descending air currents, causing sedimentation of dust. The dust that settled on the leaf surface or on a tree trunk washes away by the rain or stream of water during irrigation of green spaces.
Conclusions. Recommendations on optimization and decreasing in the content of dust in the streets of Khmelnitsky city are:
1. Create a system of dust detaining woody plants areas that are characterized by high gas resistance.
2. Inventory of street tree plantations in order to determine morphological structure and location of the woody plants that will allow quickly and effectively to replace them for quality plant.3. Implementation of the correct kronation of trees and conducting phytosanitary activities that improves the condition of a particular type of trees.
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