Нeart rate in the persons with auditory deprivation while processing visual information
Introduction. Heart rate variability (HRV) reflects the work of cardio-vascular system and the mechanisms of the whole organism regulation. HRV values show vital indicators of controlling the physiological functions of an organism, vegetative balance and functional reserves of control mechanisms. The processes of information processing are an integral part of all activities, cause tension in the autonomic regulation of the heart rate (HR). The less developed direction today is the study of HR in the individuals with auditory deprivation. The continuous growth of this category in the world causes the increase of practical interest to the development of this problem.
Purpose. To study the heart rate variability in the individuals with auditory deprivation while processing visual information.
Methods. 33 men aged 18-26 who have not hearing problems and 32 peers with auditory deprivation were examined at rest and while processing visual information according to the norms of bioethics and the regulations of 1975 Helsinki Declaration. We studied the statistical, variational and spectral characteristics of HR. The information was processed using “Diagnost 1M” computer complex according to N.V. Makarenko’s method. The statistical, variational and spectral characteristics of HR were registered with the device of “Cardiolab+” at rest and during information processing. The results were processed with the methods of non-parameter statistics with Excel-2010 program.
Results. The quantity of the processed visual information in the persons with auditory deprivation was found to be reliably less than in the individuals with normal hearing. The differentiation of visual information by the deaf individuals was accompanied by the significant number of mistakes. The analysis of the various parameters of heart work found no reliable differences between the background indicators of healthy people and the individuals with auditory deprivation. The assessment of cardiac activity while differentiating visual information found a number of reliable differences relatively to background indicators in each group of the examined persons.
SDNN indicator was found to decrease relatively background values in both healthy and deaf persons. AMo and IN indicators were found to increase in the examined persons of both groups. The highest quantitative indicators of АМо were in the group of the healthy individuals if compared with their deaf peers. The indicators of IN increased by 17.4% in the deaf persons, and by 64.8% in the healthy individuals during information processing. There was reliable decrease of quantitative indicators of LF, HF and ТР in the individuals with normal hearing and in the deaf, but this decrease was more significant in the healthy persons. In both groups of the examined, the differentiation of information was accompanied by the growth of vegetative balance LF/НF indicator in the direction of the prevalence of the relative contribution of low-frequency waves in the regulation of the heart. At the same time, less expressed participation of sympathetic part of autonomous nervous system in HR regulation was found in the deaf. The reliable correlation with LF, HF, TP, IN was found between the quantity of the processed information and the characteristics of heart activity in the deaf, and with VLF, HF, TP and IN in the individuals with normal hearing (р<0.05).
Originality. New data have been obtained regarding the fact that auditory deprivation significantly limits the opportunities of space-time organization of the brain activity of the deaf, and indirectly affects the regulatory functions of various parts of the autonomic mechanisms of the heart work.
Conclusion. Higher lability of regulatory processes of the heart rate was found in the individuals with normal hearing. Differentiating and processing visual information in the deaf were found to be accompanied by low activation of regulatory autonomic mechanisms that shows the lack of their efficiency. The obtained data do not claim the full disclosure of the discussed problem, but they can be useful in the sphere of professional orientation and for preventing vegetative and vascular disorders in the people with special needs.
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